Jobs felt the small product line allowed for a greater focus on quality and innovation. At around the same time, Apple also completed numerous acquisitions to create a portfolio of digital media production software for both professionals and consumers. Apple acquired of Macromedia 's Key Grip digital video editing software project which was renamed Final Cut Pro when it was launched on the retail market in April Apple renamed the program iTunes , while simplifying the user interface and adding the ability to burn CDs.
The first announcement came on March 24, , that Apple was nearly ready to release a new modern operating system, Mac OS X. The announcement came after numerous failed attempts in the early s, and several years of development. In May , the company opened its first two Apple Store retail locations in Virginia and California,   offering an improved presentation of the company's products.
On October 23, , Apple debuted the iPod portable digital audio player. The product, which was first sold on November 10, , was phenomenally successful with over million units sold within six years. In , Apple's iTunes Store was introduced.
The iTunes Store quickly became the market leader in online music services, with over five billion downloads by June 19, In , Apple purchased Nothing Real for their advanced digital compositing application Shake ,  as well as Emagic for the music productivity application Logic. The purchase of Emagic made Apple the first computer manufacturer to own a music software company.
The acquisition was followed by the development of Apple's consumer-level GarageBand application. By August 7, , Apple made the transition to Intel chips for the entire Mac product line—over one year sooner than announced. Apple's success during this period was evident in its stock price. In an article posted on Apple's website on February 6, , Jobs wrote that Apple would be willing to sell music on the iTunes Store without digital rights management DRM , thereby allowing tracks to be played on third-party players, if record labels would agree to drop the technology.
On January 14, , Jobs announced in an internal memo that he would be taking a six-month medical leave of absence from Apple until the end of June and would spend the time focusing on his health. In the email, Jobs stated that "the curiosity over my personal health continues to be a distraction not only for me and my family, but everyone else at Apple as well", and explained that the break would allow the company "to focus on delivering extraordinary products".
After years of speculation and multiple rumored "leaks", Apple unveiled a large screen, tablet-like media device known as the iPad on January 27, The iPad ran the same touch-based operating system as the iPhone , and all iPhone apps were compatible with the iPad. This gave the iPad a large app catalog on launch, though having very little development time before the release. Later that year on April 3, , the iPad was launched in the US. It sold more than , units on its first day, and , by the end of the first week.
In June , Apple released the iPhone 4 ,   which introduced video calling using FaceTime , multitasking , and a new uninsulated stainless steel design that acted as the phone's antenna. Later that year, Apple again refreshed its iPod line of MP3 players by introducing a multi-touch iPod Nano , an iPod Touch with FaceTime , and an iPod Shuffle that brought back the clickwheel buttons of earlier generations. On January 17, , Jobs announced in an internal Apple memo that he would take another medical leave of absence for an indefinite period to allow him to focus on his health.
Chief Operating Officer Tim Cook assumed Jobs's day-to-day operations at Apple, although Jobs would still remain "involved in major strategic decisions". Apple did not have a chairman at the time  and instead had two co-lead directors, Andrea Jung and Arthur D. Levinson ,  who continued with those titles until Levinson replaced Jobs as chairman of the board in November after Jobs' death. On October 5, , Steve Jobs died, marking the end of an era for Apple. From to , Apple released the iPhone 4S   and iPhone 5 ,   which featured improved cameras, an intelligent software assistant named Siri , and cloud-synced data with iCloud; the third and fourth generation iPads, which featured Retina displays ;    and the iPad Mini , which featured a 7.
This beat the non-inflation-adjusted record for market capitalization previously set by Microsoft in In May , the company confirmed its intent to acquire Dr. Iovine believed that Beats had always "belonged" with Apple, as the company modeled itself after Apple's "unmatched ability to marry culture and technology. During a press event on September 9, , Apple introduced a smartwatch, the Apple Watch.
In January , it was announced that one billion Apple devices were in active use worldwide. On June 6, , Fortune released Fortune , their list of companies ranked on revenue generation. In the trailing fiscal year , Apple appeared on the list as the top tech company. In November , Apple announced it was branching out into original scripted programming: a drama series starring Jennifer Aniston and Reese Witherspoon , and a reboot of the anthology series Amazing Stories with Steven Spielberg.
During its annual WWDC keynote speech on June 22, , Apple announced it would move away from Intel processors, and the Mac would transition to processors developed in-house. The Wall Street Journal reported that an effort to develop its own chips left Apple better prepared to deal with the semiconductor shortage that emerged during the pandemic era and led to increased profitability, with sales of Mac computers that included M1 chips rising sharply in and It also inspired other companies like Tesla , Amazon , and Meta Platforms to pursue a similar path.
In April , Apple opened an online store that allowed anyone in the US to view repair manuals and order replacement parts for specific recent iPhones, although the difference in cost between this method and official repair is anticipated to be minimal.
Macintosh, commonly known as Mac, is Apple's line of personal computers that use the company's proprietary macOS operating system. Personal computers were Apple's original business line, but as of the end of [update] they account for only about 10 percent of the company's revenue. The company is in the process of switching Mac computers from Intel processors to Apple silicon , a custom-designed system on a chip platform.
As of March [update] , there are six Macintosh computer families in production:. The company also develops several pieces of software that are included in the purchase price of a Mac, including the Safari web browser, the iMovie video editor, the GarageBand audio editor and the iWork productivity suite. Additionally, the company sells several professional software applications including the Final Cut Pro video editor, Motion for video animations, the Logic Pro audio editor, MainStage for live audio production, and Compressor for media compression and encoding.
Since then, Apple has annually released new iPhone models and iOS updates. The iPhone has a user interface built around a multi-touch screen, which at the time of its introduction was described as "revolutionary" and a "game-changer" for the mobile phone industry. The device has been credited with popularizing the smartphone and slate form factor , and with creating a large market for smartphone apps, or " app economy ". The iPhone has generated large profits for the company, and is credited with helping to make Apple one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies.
As of January [update] , 33 iPhone models have been produced, with five smartphone families in production:. The first-generation iPad was announced on January 27, The iPad took the multi-touch user interface first introduced in the iPhone, and adapted it to a larger screen, marked for interaction with multimedia formats including newspapers, books, photos, videos, music, documents, video games, and most existing iPhone apps.
Earlier generations of the iPad used the same iOS operating system as the company's smartphones before being split off in As of September , [update] Apple has sold more than million iPads, though sales peaked in In recent years, Apple has started offering more powerful versions of the device, with the current iPad Pro sharing the same Apple silicon as Macintosh computers, along with a smaller version of the device called iPad mini , and an upgraded version called iPad Air.
As of January [update] , there are four iPad families in production:. Apple also makes several other products that it categorizes as "Wearables, Home and Accessories. According to Steve Jobs, the company's name was inspired by his visit to an apple farm while on a fruitarian diet. Jobs thought the name "Apple" was "fun, spirited and not intimidating".
It was almost immediately replaced by Rob Janoff 's "rainbow Apple", the now-familiar rainbow-colored silhouette of an apple with a bite taken out of it. Janoff presented Jobs with several different monochromatic themes for the "bitten" logo, and Jobs immediately took a liking to it.
However, Jobs insisted that the logo be colorized to humanize the company. On August 27,  the year following the introduction of the iMac G3 , Apple officially dropped the rainbow scheme and began to use monochromatic logos nearly identical in shape to the previous rainbow incarnation. An Aqua -themed version of the monochrome logo was used from to , and a glass-themed version was used from to This resulted in a series of lawsuits and tension between the two companies.
These issues ended with the settling of their lawsuit in Apple's first slogan, " Byte into an Apple", was coined in the late s. From the introduction of the Macintosh in , with the Super Bowl advertisement to the more modern Get a Mac adverts, Apple has been recognized for its efforts towards effective advertising and marketing for its products.
However, claims made by later campaigns were criticized ,  particularly the Power Mac ads. Apple customers gained a reputation for devotion and loyalty early in the company's history. In , BYTE stated that: . There are two kinds of people in the world: people who say Apple isn't just a company, it's a cause; and people who say Apple isn't a cause, it's just a company.
Both groups are right. Nature has suspended the principle of noncontradiction where Apple is concerned. Apple is more than just a company because its founding has some of the qualities of myth Apple is two guys in a garage undertaking the mission of bringing computing power, once reserved for big corporations, to ordinary individuals with ordinary budgets.
The company's growth from two guys to a billion-dollar corporation exemplifies the American Dream. Apple evangelists were actively engaged by the company at one time, but this was after the phenomenon had already been firmly established. Apple evangelist Guy Kawasaki has called the brand fanaticism "something that was stumbled upon,"  while Ive explained in that "People have an incredibly personal relationship" with Apple's products.
Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the United States in , and in the world from to The New York Times in stated that "Apple above all else is a marketing company". It was the marketing company of the decade. The research indicated that this correlation could stem from the fact that on average Apple Inc.
In response to a query about the devotion of loyal Apple consumers, Jonathan Ive responded:. What people are responding to is much bigger than the object. They are responding to something rare—a group of people who do more than simply make something work, they make the very best products they possibly can. It's a demonstration against thoughtlessness and carelessness. As of January , [update] there are 1.
The building opened in April and houses more than 12, employees. Apple co-founder Steve Jobs wanted Apple Park to look less like a business park and more like a nature refuge, and personally appeared before the Cupertino City Council in June to make the proposal, in his final public appearance before his death. Apple also operates from the Apple Campus also known by its address, 1 Infinite Loop , a grouping of six buildings in Cupertino that total , square feet 79, m 2 located about 1 mile 1.
The buildings, located at 1—6 Infinite Loop , are arranged in a circular pattern around a central green space , in a design that has been compared to that of a university. In addition to Apple Park and the Apple Campus, Apple occupies an additional thirty office buildings scattered throughout the city of Cupertino, including three buildings that also served as prior headquarters: "Stephens Creek Three" — , Bandley One" — , and "Mariani One" — Apple has two campuses near Austin, Texas: a ,square-foot 20, m 2 campus opened in houses engineers who work on Apple silicon  and a 1.
The company, also has several other locations in Boulder, Colo. The first Apple Stores were originally opened as two locations in May by then- CEO Steve Jobs,  after years of attempting but failing store-within-a-store concepts.
In addition to purchasing products, consumers can get advice and help from "Creative Pros" — individuals with specialized knowledge of creative arts; get product support in a tree-lined Genius Grove; and attend sessions, conferences and community events,   with Ahrendts commenting that the goal is to make Apple Stores into "town squares", a place where people naturally meet up and spend time.
Many Apple Stores are located inside shopping malls, but Apple has built several stand-alone "flagship" stores in high-profile locations. Despite the stores being closed, hourly workers continue to be paid. Workers across the company are allowed to work remotely if their jobs permit it. Apple is one of several highly successful companies founded in the s that bucked the traditional notions of corporate culture.
Jobs often walked around the office barefoot even after Apple became a Fortune company. By the time of the "" television advertisement, Apple's informal culture had become a key trait that differentiated it from its competitors. As the company has grown and been led by a series of differently opinionated chief executives, it has arguably lost some of its original character. Nonetheless, it has maintained a reputation for fostering individuality and excellence that reliably attracts talented workers, particularly after Jobs returned to the company.
Numerous Apple employees have stated that projects without Jobs's involvement often took longer than projects with it. To recognize the best of its employees, Apple created the Apple Fellows program which awards individuals who make extraordinary technical or leadership contributions to personal computing while at the company.
At Apple, employees are intended to be specialists who are not exposed to functions outside their area of expertise. Jobs saw this as a means of having "best-in-class" employees in every role. For instance, Ron Johnson —Senior Vice President of Retail Operations until November 1, —was responsible for site selection, in-store service, and store layout, yet had no control of the inventory in his stores. This was done by Tim Cook, who had a background in supply-chain management.
Each project has a "directly responsible individual" or "DRI" in Apple jargon. The company typically grants stock options to executives every other year. In , Apple had , full-time employees. This increased to , full-time employees the next year, a notable hiring decrease, largely due to its first revenue decline. Apple does not specify how many of its employees work in retail, though its SEC filing put the number at approximately half of its employee base.
Apple has a strong culture of corporate secrecy , and has an anti- leak Global Security team that recruits from the National Security Agency , the Federal Bureau of Investigation , and the United States Secret Service. In December , Glassdoor said Apple was the 48th best place to work, having originally entered at rank 19 in , peaking at rank 10 in , and falling down the ranks in subsequent years. An editorial article in The Verge in September by technology journalist Thomas Ricker explored some of the public's perceived lack of innovation at Apple in recent years, specifically stating that Samsung has "matched and even surpassed Apple in terms of smartphone industrial design" and citing the belief that Apple is incapable of producing another breakthrough moment in technology with its products.
He goes on to write that the criticism focuses on individual pieces of hardware rather than the ecosystem as a whole, stating "Yes, iteration is boring. But it's also how Apple does business. He acknowledges that people are wishing for the "excitement of revolution", but argues that people want "the comfort that comes with harmony".
Furthermore, he writes that "a device is only the starting point of an experience that will ultimately be ruled by the ecosystem in which it was spawned", referring to how decent hardware products can still fail without a proper ecosystem specifically mentioning that Walkman did not have an ecosystem to keep users from leaving once something better came along , but how Apple devices in different hardware segments are able to communicate and cooperate through the iCloud cloud service with features including Universal Clipboard in which text copied on one device can be pasted on a different device as well as inter-connected device functionality including Auto Unlock in which an Apple Watch can unlock a Mac in close proximity.
He argues that Apple's ecosystem is its greatest innovation. The Wall Street Journal reported in June that Apple's increased reliance on Siri , its virtual personal assistant , has raised questions about how much Apple can actually accomplish in terms of functionality. Whereas Google and Amazon make use of big data and analyze customer information to personalize results, Apple has a strong pro-privacy stance , intentionally not retaining user data.
The report further claims that development on Siri has suffered due to team members and executives leaving the company for competitors, a lack of ambitious goals, and shifting strategies. Though switching Siri's functions to machine learning and algorithms , which dramatically cut its error rate, the company reportedly still failed to anticipate the popularity of Amazon's Echo , which features the Alexa personal assistant.
Improvements to Siri stalled, executives clashed, and there were disagreements over the restrictions imposed on third-party app interactions. While Apple acquired an England-based startup specializing in conversational assistants, Google's Assistant had already become capable of helping users select Wi-Fi networks by voice, and Siri was lagging in functionality.
The former had experienced a severe security vulnerability, in which Macs running the then-latest macOS High Sierra software were vulnerable to a bug that let anyone gain administrator privileges by entering "root" as the username in system prompts, leaving the password field empty and twice clicking "unlock", gaining full access. Not to say that things didn't go wrong under his watch, but product announcements and launches felt a lot tighter for sure, as did the overall quality of what Apple was releasing.
The company's manufacturing, procurement, and logistics enable it to execute massive product launches without having to maintain large, profit-sapping inventories. In , Apple's profit margins were 40 percent, compared with between 10 and 20 percent for most other hardware companies.
Cook's catchphrase to describe his focus on the company's operational arm is: "Nobody wants to buy sour milk". We're thinking about, where are the opportunities across the U. As of , Apple uses components from 43 countries. During the Mac's early history Apple generally refused to adopt prevailing industry standards for hardware, instead creating their own.
Apple has gradually expanded its efforts in getting its products into the Indian market. In July , during a conference call with investors, CEO Tim Cook said that he "[loves] India", but that Apple saw larger opportunities outside the region. The company advertised its products as being made in America until the late s; however, as a result of outsourcing initiatives in the s, almost all of its manufacturing is now handled abroad. According to a report by The New York Times , Apple insiders "believe the vast scale of overseas factories, as well as the flexibility, diligence and industrial skills of foreign workers, have so outpaced their American counterparts that " Made in the USA " is no longer a viable option for most Apple products".
In , one complex of factories in Shenzhen , China that assembled the iPod and other items had over , workers living and working within it. A little over half of the workers' earnings was required to pay for rent and food from the company. Apple immediately launched an investigation after the media report, and worked with their manufacturers to ensure acceptable working conditions.
Yearly progress reports have been published since A team from Apple is independently evaluating the steps they are taking to address these tragic events and we will continue our ongoing inspections of the facilities where our products are made. The statement was released after the results from the company's probe into its suppliers' labor practices were published in early Foxconn was not specifically named in the report, but Apple identified a series of serious labor violations of labor laws, including Apple's own rules, and some child labor existed in a number of factories.
Also in , workers in China planned to sue iPhone contractors over poisoning by a cleaner used to clean LCD screens. One worker claimed that he and his coworkers had not been informed of possible occupational illnesses. A BBC investigation found excessive hours and other problems persisted, despite Apple's promise to reform factory practice after the Foxconn suicides.
The Pegatron factory was once again the subject of review, as reporters gained access to the working conditions inside through recruitment as employees. While the BBC maintained that the experiences of its reporters showed that labor violations were continuing since , Apple publicly disagreed with the BBC and stated: "We are aware of no other company doing as much as Apple to ensure fair and safe working conditions".
In December , the Institute for Global Labour and Human Rights published a report which documented inhumane conditions for the 15, workers at a Zhen Ding Technology factory in Shenzhen, China, which serves as a major supplier of circuit boards for Apple's iPhone and iPad.
According to the report, workers are pressured into hour work weeks which leaves them so exhausted that they often sleep during lunch breaks. They are also made to reside in "primitive, dark and filthy dorms" where they sleep "on plywood, with six to ten workers in each crowded room. In , there were reports stating that some of Foxconn's managers had used rejected parts to build iPhones and that Apple was investigating the issue.
As of June 6, [update] , Apple's solar farms in California and Nevada have been declared to provide Apple will use the methane emissions to generate electricity. In , Climate Counts , a nonprofit organization dedicated to directing consumers toward the greenest companies, gave Apple a score of 52 points out of a possible , which puts Apple in their top category "Striding".
Each product receives a Gold, Silver, or Bronze rank depending on its efficiency and sustainability. Although Apple's data centers recycle water 35 times,  the increased activity in retail, corporate and data centers also increase the amount of water use to million US gal 2. Lisa P. Another partnership announced is with the World Wildlife Fund to preserve up to 1,, acres 4, km 2 of forests in China.
Featured was the company's installation of a 40 MW solar power plant in the Sichuan province of China that was tailor-made to coexist with the indigenous yaks that eat hay produced on the land, by raising the panels to be several feet off of the ground so the yaks and their feed would be unharmed grazing beneath the array. This installation alone compensates for more than all of the energy used in Apple's Stores and Offices in the whole of China, negating the company's energy carbon footprint in the country.
Liam was introduced to the world, an advanced robotic disassembler and sorter designed by Apple Engineers in California specifically for recycling outdated or broken iPhones. Reuses and recycles parts from traded in products. Apple announced on August 16, , that Lens Technology, one of its major suppliers in China, has committed to power all its glass production for Apple with percent renewable energy by The commitment is a large step in Apple's efforts to help manufacturers lower their carbon footprint in China.
The standard, which started in January , certifies that all manufacturing waste is reused , recycled , composted , or converted into energy when necessary. Since the program began, nearly, , metric tons of waste have been diverted from landfills. On July 21, , Apple announced its plan to become carbon neutral across its entire business, manufacturing supply chain, and product life cycle by In the next 10 years, Apple will try to lower emissions with a series of innovative actions, including: low carbon product design, expanding energy efficiency, renewable energy, process and material innovations, and carbon removal.
Following further campaigns by Greenpeace,  in , Apple became the first electronics manufacturer to fully eliminate all polyvinyl chloride PVC and brominated flame retardants BFRs in its complete product line. Allowing consumers to make informed purchasing decisions on the products they offer for sale. In November , Apple was featured in Greenpeace's Guide to Greener Electronics, which ranks electronics manufacturers on sustainability, climate and energy policy, and how "green" their products are.
The company ranked fourth of fifteen electronics companies moving up five places from the previous year with a score of 4. However, the guide criticizes Apple on the Energy criteria for not seeking external verification of its greenhouse gas emissions data and for not setting out any targets to reduce emissions. The green bond proceeds are dedicated to the financing of environmental projects. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue, the world's largest technology company by total assets ,  and the world's second-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung.
In its fiscal year ending in September , Apple Inc. As of August 3, [update] , Apple was the largest publicly traded corporation in the world by market capitalization. On August 2, , Apple became the first publicly traded U.
Apple has created subsidiaries in low-tax places such as Ireland , the Netherlands , Luxembourg , and the British Virgin Islands to cut the taxes it pays around the world. According to The New York Times, in the s Apple was among the first tech companies to designate overseas salespeople in high-tax countries in a manner that allowed the company to sell on behalf of low-tax subsidiaries on other continents, sidestepping income taxes.
In the late s, Apple was a pioneer of an accounting technique known as the " Double Irish with a Dutch sandwich ," which reduces taxes by routing profits through Irish subsidiaries and the Netherlands and then to the Caribbean. British Conservative Party Member of Parliament Charlie Elphicke published research on October 30, ,  which showed that some multinational companies, including Apple Inc.
He followed this research by calling on the Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne to force these multinationals, which also included Google and The Coca-Cola Company , to state the effective rate of tax they pay on their UK revenues. Elphicke also said that government contracts should be withheld from multinationals who do not pay their fair share of UK tax. Under U. It was not until that Irish economists could definitively prove that the growth was due to Apple restructuring its controversial double Irish subsidiaries Apple Sales International , which Apple converted into a new Irish capital allowances for intangible assets tax scheme expires in January On August 30, , after a two-year investigation , the EU Competition Commissioner concluded Apple received "illegal state aid" from Ireland.
As of October 26, [update] the following individuals sit on the board of Apple Inc. As of March 16, [update] the management of Apple Inc. The role of chairman of the Board has not always been in use; notably, between to , and to Apple has been a participant in various legal proceedings and claims since it began operation. Some litigation examples include Apple v. Samsung , Apple v. Microsoft , Motorola Mobility v. Apple Computer. Apple has also had to defend itself against charges on numerous occasions of violating intellectual property rights.
Most have been dismissed in the courts as shell companies known as patent trolls , with no evidence of actual use of patents in question. Apple has a notable pro-privacy stance, actively making privacy-conscious features and settings part of its conferences, promotional campaigns, and public image. With Apple's release of an update to iOS 14 , Apple required all developers of iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch applications to directly ask iPhone users permission to track them.
The feature, titled "App Tracking Transparency", received heavy criticism from Facebook, whose primary business model revolves around the tracking of users' data and sharing such data with advertisers so users can see more relevant ads, a technique commonly known as targeted advertising. Despite Facebook's measures, including purchasing full-page newspaper advertisements protesting App Tracking Transparency, Apple released the update in mid-spring However, Apple aids law enforcement in criminal investigations by providing iCloud backups of users' devices,    and the company's commitment to privacy has been questioned by its efforts to promote biometric authentication technology in its newer iPhone models, which don't have the same level of constitutional privacy as a passcode in the United States.
Prior to the release of iOS 15 , Apple announced new efforts at combating child sexual abuse material on iOS and Mac platforms. Parents of minor iMessage users can now be alerted if their child sends or receives nude photographs. Additionally, on-device hashing would take place on media destined for upload to iCloud, and hashes would be compared to a list of known abusive images provided by law enforcement; if enough matches were found, Apple would be alerted and authorities informed.
The new features received praise from law enforcement and victims rights advocates, however privacy advocates, including the Electronic Frontier Foundation , condemned the new features as invasive and highly prone to abuse by authoritarian governments.
Apple contributes financially to fundraisers in times of natural disasters. Apple has been criticized for alleged unethical business practices such as anti-competitive behavior , rash litigation,  dubious tax tactics, production methods involving the use of sweatshop labor,   customer service issues involving allegedly misleading warranties and insufficient data security , and its products' environmental footprint. Apple has also received criticism for its willingness to work and conduct business with nations such as China and Russia, engaging in practices that have been criticized by human rights groups.
Apple's issues regarding music over the years include those with the European Union regarding iTunes,  trouble over updating the Spotify app on Apple devices  and collusion with record labels. The recall affected , units, and Apple was criticized for the long waiting periods consumers experienced, sometimes extending up to 3 weeks for replacements to arrive; the company also did not provide alternative replacements or repair options. In July , following a campaign by the " right to repair " movement, challenging Apple's tech repair restrictions on devices, the FTC held a workshop to establish the framework of a future nationwide Right to Repair rule.
The movement argues Apple is preventing consumers from legitimately fixing their devices at local repair shops which is having a negative impact on consumers. AGCM stated that Apple's claims of the iPhone's water resistance weren't true as the phones could only resist water up to 4 meters deep in ideal laboratory conditions and not in regular circumstances. The authority added that Apple provided no assistance to customers with water-damaged phones, which it said constituted an aggressive trade practice.
Ireland's Data Protection Commission also launched a privacy investigation to examine whether Apple complied with the EU's GDPR law following an investigation into how the company processes personal data with targeted ads on its platform. In December , a report found that the iPhone 11 Pro continues tracking location and collecting user data even after users have disabled location services.
In response, an Apple engineer said the Location Services icon "appears for system services that do not have a switch in settings. According to published reports by Bloomberg News on March 30, , Apple turned over data such as phone numbers, physical addresses, and IP addresses to hackers posing as law enforcement officials using forged documents.
The law enforcement requests sometimes included forged signatures of real or fictional officials. When asked about the allegations, an Apple representative referred the reporter to a section of the company policy for law enforcement guidelines, which stated, "We review every data request for legal sufficiency and use advanced systems and processes to validate law enforcement requests and detect abuse.
The United States Department of Justice also began a review of Big Tech firms to establish whether they could be unlawfully stifling competition in a broad antitrust probe in The arrangement created aligned prices for Apple products such as iPads and personal computers for about half the French retail market. According to the French regulators, the abuses occurred between and but were first discovered after a complaint by an independent reseller, eBizcuss, in The suits come after both Apple and Google blocked the game after it introduced a direct payment system, effectively shutting out the tech titans from collecting fees.
Facebook had, however, stated that the company will not participate directly with the lawsuit, although did commit to helping with the discovery of evidence relating to the trial of In the months prior to their agreement, Facebook had been dealing with feuds against Apple relating to the prices of paid apps as well as privacy rule changes. Barr criticized Apple for refusing to unlock two iPhones of a Saudi national, Mohammed Saeed Alshamrani, who shot and killed three American sailors and injured eight others in the Naval Air Station Pensacola.
The request occurred in the context of the Chinese government's ongoing mass repression of Muslims, particularly Uyghurs, in Xinjiang, which some have labeled a genocide. In December , The Information reported that CEO Tim Cook had negotiated in a five-year agreement with the Chinese government, motivated in part to allay regulatory issues that had harmed the company's business in China.
In September , Apple removed an app from its App Store created by Alexei Navalny meant to coordinate protest voting during the Russian legislative election. The Russian government had threatened to arrest individual Apple employees working in the country unless Apple complied.
In January , Ericsson sued Apple over payment of royalty of 5G technology. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American multinational technology company. Traded as. Cupertino, California. Operating income. Net income. Main article: History of Apple Inc. See also: History of Apple Inc. See also: Timeline of Apple Inc. Main article: Macintosh. Main article: iPhone. Main article: iPad. See also: Typography of Apple Inc.
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Jobs and Wozniak worked together on the Atari arcade game Breakout while Jobs was working at Atari and Wozniak was working at HP — Jobs had roped Woz into helping him reduce the number of logic chips required. Jobs managed to get a good bonus for the work on Breakout, of which he gave a small amount to Woz. So Woz produced the the first computer with a typewriter-like keyboard and the ability to connect to a regular TV as a screen. It was to really show the people around me, to boast, to be clever, to get acknowledgement for having designed a very inexpensive computer.
Wozniak sold his HP calculator which cost a bit more than calculators do today! Speaking to Byte magazine in December , Woz credited Jobs with the idea. I thought that it might be because there were apples in the orchard or maybe just its fructarian nature. Maybe the word just happened to occur to him. In any case, we both tried to come up with better names but neither one of us could think of anything better after Apple was mentioned. According to the biography of Steve Jobs, the name was conceived by Jobs after he returned from apple farm.
The name also likely benefitted by beginning with an A, which meant it would be nearer the front of any listings. There are other theories about the meaning behind the name Apple. The idea that it was named thus because Newton was inspired when an Apple fell out of a tree hitting him on the head, is backed up by the fact that the original Apple logo was a rather complicated illustration of Newton sitting under a tree. These logos are probably the reason for other theories about the meaning behind the name Apple, with some suggesting that the Apple logo with a chunk taken out of it is a nod at computer scientist and Enigma code-breaker, Alan Turing, who committed suicide by eating a cyanide infused apple.
Equally the bite taken out of the Apple could represent the story of Adam and Eve from the Old Testament. The idea being that the Apple represents knowledge. Neither could it get them. The Cramer manager told him that two scruffy kids had just walked in waving an order from the Byte Shop. Was it real?
Terrell confirmed that it was, and the store agreed to front Jobs the parts on thirty-day credit. Jobs was banking on producing enough working computers within that time to settle the bill out of the proceeds from selling completed units to Byte Shop. Did they have the money? Was I reachable? When he unpacked them, Terrell, who had ordered finished computers, was surprised by what he found. It had no case. When you consider that only were built, the Apple I was a triumph. The success of the first Apple computer meant that Apple was able to go on to design its predecessor.
It was a truly groundbreaking machine, just like the Apple computer before it, with colour graphics and tape-based storage later upgraded to 5. Memory ran to 64K in the top-end models and the image it sent to the NTSC display stretched to a truly impressive x , which was then considered high resolution. Naturally there was a payoff, and pushing it to such limits meant you had to content yourself with just six colours, but dropping to a more reasonable 40 rows by 48 columns would let you enjoy as many as 16 tones at a time.
Converting them for digital use would be no small feat, but Bricklin was unperturbed. He borrowed an Apple II from his eventual publisher and set to work, knocking out an alpha edition over the course of a weekend. Many of the concepts he used are still familiar today — in particular, letters above each column and numbers by the rows to use as references when building formulae.
Wondering how it compares to Numbers today? It was far from perfect and working this way was sluggish, so Bricklin reverted to using the left and right arrow keys, with the space bar in place of the fire button for switching between horizontal and vertical movement. We owe it a debt of gratitude for the part it played in driving sales of the Apple II and anchoring Apple within the industry.
How right he was, as Tim Barry revealed in a later InfoWorld piece in which he described an experience that would have been familiar to many:. A low heat-generating switching power supply allowed the computer to be placed in a lightweight plastic case.
Its sophisticated packaging differentiated it from … computers that had visible boards and wires connecting various components to the motherboard. In short, Apple had designed a computer that embodied what we came to expect of desktop machines through the s, s and the first few years of this century — before Apple turned things on its head again and moved increasingly towards sealed boxes without the option for internal expansion. Almost six million series IIs were produced over 16 years, giving Apple its second big hit.
Really, though, the company was still getting started, and its brightest days were still ahead. Rival Lotus stepped in and its quickly became the business standard. Apple has never been slow to innovate — except, perhaps, where product names are concerned.
Predictable, eh? That must have left industry watchers wondering where it might go next. Of most interest to Mac users, though, is its revolutionary work on interface design. But Jobs, who was working on the Lisa at the time, wanted something more intuitive. To say this was a bargain would be a massive understatement.
Apple has split its stock four times since then — in , , and Companies do this when the price of a single share starts to get too high, in an effort to stimulate further trading. So, assuming Xerox held on to those shares, it would have had , by , , by and , by Not bad for a three-day tour. Jobs was bowled over by the Xerox Alto, a machine used widely throughout the park, with a portrait display and graphical interface, which was way ahead of its time.
It was the first computer to major on mouse use, with a three-button gadget used to point at and click on objects on the screen. Jobs decreed that every computer Apple produced from that point on should adopt a similar way of working. I could see what the future of computing was destined to be.
Jeff Raskin, meanwhile, was heading up development of the Macintosh, which had smaller businesses and home users firmly in its sights, and each team wanted to be the first to ship an Apple computer with a graphical interface. The caused upsets, and in matters came to a head. The two men worked out a new corporate structure, which sidelined Jobs with immediate effect, and handed control of the Lisa project back to John Couch.
Jobs, also stripped of responsibility for research and development within the company, was little more than a figurehead. That left him on the lookout for a new project. Raskin left the Macintosh team when he and Jobs fell out, and Jobs assumed control for the remainder of its development. However, this enforced switching of sides meant that Jobs — technically — ended up on the losing team. The Lisa launched in , with its graphical user interface in place; the Macintosh debuted the following year.
The race had been won by the Lisa. It was a pyrrhic victory, though. Apple released seven applications for it, covering all of the usual business bases, but third party support was poor. The original Lisa was followed by the Lisa 2, which cost around half the price of its predecessor and used the same 3.
Then, in , it rebranded the hard drive-equipped Lisa 2 as the Macintosh XL and stimulated sales with a price cut. The Macintosh went on to define the company. By , Apple had proved twice over that it was a force to be reckoned with. It had taken on IBM, the biggest name in business computing, and acquitted itself admirably. Apple needed another hit, both to guarantee its future and to target the lower end of the market, which to date it had largely ignored. Jobs quickly stamped his mark on it, and Raskin left in — before the product shipped.
Raskin later endorsed the mouse, but with more than the single button that shipped with the Macintosh. It was Jobs and Bud Tribble, the latter of whom is still at Apple he is Vice President of Software Technology , that really pushed the team to implement the graphical user interface GUI for which it became famous.
Tribble tasked the Macintosh team with doing the same for their own machine which, in hindsight, may have been the most important directive ever issued by anyone inside Apple. Through several iterations, the prototype Macintosh became both more able and less complex to build. It had fewer chips, and the Apple engineers were able to push them further and faster.
By the time it was ready to launch, the Macintosh incorporated the kind of graphics hardware that would have cost tens of thousands of pounds to buy in any rival machine, yet Apple was aiming to sell it at a price that would put it in reach of the better-heeled home user.
The final spec was radical for its day, with a 6MHz Motorola processor ramped up to 7. The Macintosh looked just good on the outside. Sure, it was shrouded in beige plastic — but the all in one body incorporated the floppy drive and a handy carrying handle, so you could easily take it with you, wherever you needed to work. It looked friendly, too, and that made it more approachable. There were still some limitations, though. Apple partially fixed this shortcoming by offering an external add-on drive, which allowed users to keep the System disk in situ and delegate responsibility for apps and data to a second disk.
Despite it limitations, though, many of the features established on that first Macintosh are still in use today. The hardware was only half of the story. Coder Bill Atkinson had implemented a radical system by which the Macintosh System software allowed for overlapping windows in a more efficient manner than the computers at PARC had done, and Susan Kare spent months developing a visual language in the form of on-screen icons that have since become classics.
Her paint bucket and lasso graphics are used widely in other applications, and the fonts she designed for use on the original Macintosh, which included Chiacgo, Geneva and Monaco, are still in use today — albeit in finer forms. By the beginning of May that same year, Apple had hit the landmark figure of 70, shipped units, which was likely helped in no small part by a remarkable piece of advertising directed by Ridley Scott. Nobody would ever deny that the original Macintosh was a work of genius.
It was small, relatively inexpensive for its day and friendly. It brought the GUI — graphical user interface — to a mass audience and gave us all the tools we could ever need for producing graphics-rich work that would have costs many times as much on any other platform.
You see, Apple had built it up to be something quite astounding. It was going to change the computing world, we were told, and as launch day approached, the hype continued to grow. It was a gamble — a big one — that any other company would likely have shied away from. Jobs understood what made the Macintosh special, and he knew that, aside from the keynote address at which he would reveal it, the diminutive machine needed a far from diminutive bit of publicity. Super Bowl ads are always special, but this was in a league of its own.
The premise was simple enough, but the message was a gamble, pitting Apple directly against its biggest competitor, IBM. People trusted the brand, staking their careers on the simple choice of IBM or one of the others. She was bright, fresh and youthful, and a stark contrast to the cold, blue, shaven-headed drones all about her. They plodded while she ran. They were brainwashed by Big Brother, who lectured them through an enormous screen, but she hurled a hammer through the screen to free them from their penury.
Jobs and Sculley loved it, but when Jobs played it to the board, it got a frosty reception. One of these was a minor booking, slated to run on just ten local stations in Idaho, purely so the ad would qualify for the advertising awards.
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Apple Computers, Inc. was founded on April 1, , by college dropouts Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, who brought to the new company a vision of changing the. Founders Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne created Apple Computer Co. on April 1, , to market Wozniak's Apple I desktop computer, and Jobs and. Apple was founded as Apple Computer Company on April 1, , by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I.