Note, too, that - as the above list suggests - command names are case-sensitive. This is puzzling, since both of these should work fine with a standard class such as article. The others, therefore, are undefined. Also, it may be worth saying that these are font sizes for text. Fonts are configured quite differently for mathematics, not excepting font sizing.
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Andrea Andrea 21 1 1 silver badge 2 2 bronze badges. Some of those aren't default declarations. The others aren't defined — Au No class defines all possible ones. When you say 'X only defines some', the obvious question is 'what about the rest? Add a comment. See the discussion of encoding below. Useful resources for latex and pdflatex font configuration include:. Digitising human language is a complicated topic that has evolved significantly since TeX's inception.
Today, text is usually represented in computer systems using Unicode. When using latex or pdflatex , you must choose an input encoding , which the engine uses to interpret your file, and an output encoding , which the engine uses to map your inputs to glyphs. The default font encoding is OT1, the encoding of the original Computer Modern fonts. When accented characters are required, TeX creates them by combining a normal character with an accent. While the resulting output looks correct, this approach has some caveats compared to Unicode-based approaches:.
To overcome these shortcomings, several other 8-bit output encodings were created. Extended Cork EC fonts in T1 encoding contains letters and punctuation characters for most European languages that use Latin alphabets. The LH font set contains letters necessary to typeset documents in languages using Cyrillic script. Another advantage of using new CM-like fonts is that they provide fonts of CM families in all weights, shapes, and optically scaled font sizes.
All this is not possible with OT1 ; that's why you may want to change the font encoding of your document. Note that different fonts support different output encodings. The default Computer Modern font does not support T1, for example. If you have none of these, it is quite frequent depends on your TeX installation that tex chooses a Type3 font such as the Type3 EC, which is a bitmap font.
Bitmap fonts look rather ugly when zoomed or printed. The fontenc package tells LaTeX what font encoding to use. Font encoding is set with:. It is possible to load several encodings simultaneously. There is nothing to change in your document to use CM Super fonts assuming they are installed , they will get loaded automatically if you use T1 encoding. For lmodern , you will need to load the package after the T1 encoding has been set:. The package ae almost European is obsolete.
It provided some workarounds for hyphenation of words with special characters. These are not necessary any more with fonts like lmodern. Using the ae package leads to text encoding problems in PDF files generated via pdflatex e. PDF documents have the capability to embed font files.
It makes them portable, hence the name Portable Document Format. Many Unix systems make use of the poppler tool set which features pdfinfo to list PDF metadata, and pdffonts to list embedded fonts. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world. Practical Typography. Category : Book:LaTeX. Namespaces Book Discussion. Views Read Edit Edit source View history. Reading room forum Community portal Bulletin Board Help out!
Policies and guidelines Contact us. In this emphasized sentence, there is an emphasized word which looks upright. Bold text may be used to heavily emphasize very important words or phrases. Do not overuse emphasis in your paragraphs. Emphasis should be reserved for key terms or other particularly important concepts in a text, and bold text especially used minimally.
Typically italics. Small Capitals. There are some caveats, though; see here. If after using T1 you find yourself with very low quality fonts, it is because there is no appropriate font installed on your system. Install either cm-super or lmodern.
Other programs in that configuration from. The the "server" is initiating the. This means are handy.
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In some cases, you may want to set fonts and sizes by hand. The following example shows how to use the smallest available font size in LaTeX (\tiny) and the. A good rule of thumb is don't use too many different sizes and don't make things too small/big. There are two possible ways to use these font. Font size commands are provided by classes. The standard LaTeX classes provide \tiny \scriptsize \footnotesize \small \normalsize \large.